Please see the guidance notes for information management considerations.
As advancements in the field are made, tools, examples and links will be added here.
MINIMUM SECTORAL DATA A
10.1 Overview and Function
The minimum sectoral data presented in these guidance notes are based on the standards and units of measurement set by the SPHERE Project’s Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response in 2011, as well as through internal UNHCR standards. These guidance notes work to establish what all staff members, including an Information Manager, needs to know in order to inform operational planning and an information management strategy.
10.2 How-to Guide
The UNHCR sector specialists generally cover public health, nutrition and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), informing the initial emergency response based on the following key indicators.
10.2.1 Key minimum emergency indicators for public health, nutrition and WASH for refugee camp populations
This data in the below chart is collected in transit centres, refugee sites and refugee camps. Where refugees are integrated into national programmes for health, nutrition and WASH this data is not collected. In these programmes the available health data from the Ministry of Health will provide an indication of the overall health and nutritional status of the population.
In general the source for the below indicators should be the, ‘UNHCR Basic Indicator Report’, or if a health coordinator is not yet on the ground, this information may be obtained from health and wash partners in refugee camp/settlement situations.
|Crude mortality rate|
|Under-5 mortality rate|
|Measles vaccination coverage|
Proportion of births attended by a skilled health worker
Note: Defined as doctors and/or persons with midwifery skills who can diagnose and manage obstetrical emergencies as well as normal deliveries. Traditional birth attendants (trained or untrained) are not included
|Global acute malnutrition (GAM) prevalence|
|Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) prevalence|
Liters of potable water / person / day
Note: 15 liters/person/day at the onset of the emergency moving towards minimum 20 liters/persons/day as soon as possible.
Number of persons per latrine
Note: The standards increase in the first weeks of an emergency: 50 persons per latrine moving towards 20 persons/latrine as soon as resources allow. Wherever, possible family latrines (1 latrine per household) should be encouraged from the onset of the emergency.
Population denominators for the calculation of rates are referenced from registration statistics shared by the UNHCR registration officer or Information Manager, or from other estimation sources.
10.2.2 Public health, WASH and nutrition information products to expect
The sector specialist will be working with a web-based application that combines streams of information to inform decision-making in the humanitarian sector, (the application, called TWINE may be found online at: http://twine.unhcr.org/app/) which integrates minimum sectoral data and presents the information in summary reports (note: Twine requires a log-in, and permissions will be provided based on the type of user). Data is derived from surveillance systems at the service provider level and aggregated to foster epidemiologic needs. Data is entered directly into the Twine database or uploaded online either by partners or by the UNHCR sectoral expert. Indicator guidance is integrated directly into the application and may also be downloaded as individual indicator guidance sheets.
At the onset of an emergency when Twine (the web-based Health Information System (HIS)) or other data collection systems have not yet been established, data for 9 basic indicators are collected on a weekly basis. This data is compiled into the Basic Indicator Report and shared internally and externally with partners. The reports should also be integrated into wider reporting platforms, such as Situation Updates and the operational web portals.
The Twine comprehensive indicator reports and summary reports facilitate inter-sector analysis through online reporting formats within the health, WASH, and nutrition sectors (food assistance forthcoming). For example, HIS data on water borne diseases is integrated with WASH data to create the WASH Report Card, allowing for trends to be observed and be interpreted. These reports are available in PDF format, and should be integrated into the information dissemination strategy. Raw indicator data may also be downloaded from the web application directly into spreadsheet formats for additional analysis. For food security, a “Rapid JAM” assessment in collaboration with WFP is expected in the weeks following the outset of the emergency (link to guidance below).
For WASH, a rapid WASH households surveying is expected in the first weeks from the onset of the emergency to flag critical WASH gaps and to prioritize geographical areas of interventions.
When analyzing the information contained in the reports, it will be important to consider links that may arise from parallel assessments taking place at the onset of the emergency, such as between the emergency needs assessment and the ongoing monitoring and analysis of emerging trends within the refugee population, that may impact the public health, WASH, nutritional or food security situation.
10.2.3 Considerations when cross-analyzing data
When cross-analyzing secondary data, it is imperative to take into consideration possible protection, shelter or CRI implications or compounding factors. This can be done for all members of the population or specifically for vulnerable groups.
The sector specialist may share data in order to facilitate analysis with non-health sectors. The sector specialist may also share the outputs of Health/WASH/nutrition/food security information products by posting on the UNHCR country web portal or by including this information in the camp profile and other standard information products. Most data is available online through Twine and accessible to partners after an initial sign-in, and may be downloaded via .csv or .pdf reports.
The sector specialist will also need to provide contextual data such as rapid assessment methodologies that will allow readers to determine the quality of the data or to whom it applies (e.g. all new arrivals or just certain sectors in a camp or urban setting).
10.2.4 What the Information Manager should provide the sector specialist
The Information Manager will need to provide the sector specialist with the latest population statistics, broken down at least by total population and disaggregated according to standard UNHCR age demographics. In addition, the Information Manager will need to provide any relevant cross-sectoral analysis with regards to non-health sectors, which may feed into larger-scale funding requests made by programme colleagues after the first six weeks of an emergency.
Cross-sectoral analysis should be cleared with the sector lead, senior managers and the Representative.
10.2.5 What to do if there is no sector specialist
In all major health, nutrition, food security or WASH emergencies, a sectoral expert will be deployed as part of the initial emergency response. In the event that no one is available in this position, consult internally within the operation to gather available information or contact the Public Health Section at HQ in Geneva (HQPHN@unhcr.org), which is the technical umbrella for public health, food security and nutrition, HIV and WASH. The technical experts can assist remotely or possibly be deployed.